Investments in nature-based solutions such as ecosystem restoration and afforestation need to triple by 2030 to meet the world’s climate, biodiversity and land degradation targets, finds this report from the UN Environment Programme. By 2050, annual spending will need to reach US $536 billion - around four times today’s spending levels.
Of the current US $133 billion that is spent on nature-based solutions annually, 86% is from public funds and 14% is from private finance. This contrasts with climate finance, where 56% of spending is from private finance.
The report notes that investment in nature-based solutions is often deterred because the provision of public goods such as carbon sequestration is not always financially rewarded. It argues that the public sector can help to create opportunities for private investment, for example by providing coherent regulation and removing subsidies (such as for certain pesticides or fertilisers) that might put nature-based solutions at a disadvantage.