Isotopic signature

Isotopic signature refers to the ratio of different isotopes. Isotopes are atoms that have a different number of protons and neutrons. For example, most carbon (C) has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, giving it an atomic weight of 12. This form of carbon is known as carbon-12 (or 12C). Another stable form of carbon exists with 6 protons and 7 neutrons, giving it a molecular weight of 13, hence it is known as carbon-13 (or 13C). Different sources of methane emissions can be composed of different proportions of 12C and 13C, with fossil fuel sources often containing relatively more 13C than biological sources.